Sexually transmitted diseases are among the top five most common ailments. Most often they are diagnosed in young people who lead an active sex life and neglect contraceptives. A rather serious disease that threatens serious health problems is trichomoniasis – in women, its symptoms are more pronounced, which allows for early diagnosis. The peculiarity of the infection is a rapid transition to the chronic stage in the absence of treatment or improper therapy.
How the infection is transmitted
Trichomoniasis is transmitted exclusively through intimate contact of any kind: vaginally, orally, anally . The occurrence is provoked by unicellular pathogenic microorganisms, Trichomonas, belonging to the class of anaerobes. Although bacteria are able to exist without oxygen and “love” a humid environment, they die in open space, so it is impossible to get infected with trichomoniasis at home. For the active development of the virus, a slight change in the acid-base balance of the female genital organs is required: the pH balance from 5.5 to 6.6 is considered the optimal condition for active growth.
IMPORTANT! Trichomonas are unable to live on household items: dishes, bedding, towels, washcloths, etc.
How does trichomoniasis develop in women? If the woman’s immune system is strong, then after an intimate relationship with an infected partner, the microorganisms “fall asleep”, waiting for favorable conditions for reproduction.
The following factors that increase the acidity of the vulvar mucosa can serve as an impetus for development:
- menstrual bleeding;
- abortion or miscarriage;
- active, hard sex.
These circumstances can also disrupt the mechanical protection of the genital organs: during an abortion or childbirth, the cervix opens, and active frictions during sex “push” harmful cells deep into the vulva, which allows bacteria to enter the body. Based on the manifestations of the disease and the complexity, duration of its course, urogenital infection is divided into three types.
- “Fresh” – from the first day of infection to two months. It can be acute, subacute, with mild symptoms.
- Chronic – is established from the third month. It is characterized by periods of relapses and remissions, the symptoms during exacerbations are “erased”, blurred.
- Trichomonas carriage – the disease does not manifest itself in any way, but the patient poses a potential danger to her sex partner. Malicious cells are detected by chance, during a preventive examination.
According to medical statistics, cases of asymptomatic course are very common: on average, every third representative of the weaker sex is a carrier of pathogenic microflora and does not even suspect it, and in every fifth patient the disease is independent, that is, it is not complicated by other bacterial pathologies of the genitourinary tract. In 90% of girls, trichomoniasis is combined with chlamydia, pale treponema, ureaplasmas , mycoplasmas, which are nutrients for Trichomonas.
The first signs of trichomoniasis in women occur a few days after the penetration of the virus. The average incubation period is 4-5 days, but in some women a strong immune system does not allow bright symptoms to appear for about two weeks. The nature of the phenomena depends on the organ in which the focus of infection has developed, as well as on the spread of microorganisms, that is, are other important systems affected? Most often, the mucous membranes of the vagina, cervical canal and the cavity of the urinary canal are affected.
A characteristic sign of trichomoniasis is vaginal discharge. They are plentiful, distinguished by a green or dark yellow tint, and tend to foam. The smell of whiter is sharp, repulsive, unpleasant. If gardnerella joined Trichomonas , the aroma will be similar to the smell of rotten fish.
Also, the symptoms of the disease include:
- sharp pain during sexual intercourse or pulling after sex;
- urination disorders (if bacteria have entered the urethra): pain, burning, difficulty with urine outflow;
- more frequent trips to the toilet, while the amount of urine is very scarce (usually indicates urethritis – inflammation of the urethra);
- unbearable itching in the vagina;
- rarely – pulling pain in the groin (a sign of inflammation of the uterine cavity).
During a gynecological examination, the doctor notes redness of the mucous membranes and the presence of a foamy coating on the walls of the vulva. When you touch the speculum to the cervix, there is slight bleeding caused by softening of the cervical canal. Also on the cervix, you can easily notice multiple subcutaneous capillary hemorrhages.
IMPORTANT! A good clue to establishing the correct diagnosis will be ulcers on the skin of the perineum: they appear as a result of “corrosion” of the epidermis with whites flowing outward.
Manifestations of the chronic stage
The chronic form develops for two reasons: neglect of the symptoms of the disease and postponing the trip to the doctor or violation of the rules of therapy (self-medication, replacement of prescribed drugs with others, a partner who refuses to be treated, which leads to the “ ping – pong effect ”). This form of the disease worries the patient for several months, and sometimes years. It is characterized by periodic exacerbations, the symptoms in which are less bright than in the primary acute manifestation.
What factors provoke relapse? Most often it is:
- violations of the rules of personal hygiene;
- monthly bleeding;
- disorderly intimate life;
- addiction to alcoholic beverages;
- weakening of the protective forces caused by various diseases, hypothermia;
- dysfunction of the components of the reproductive system.
The stages of remission are characterized by the absence of the main phenomena and their presence in the most diffuse, mild forms. Usually, girls complain of abundant vaginal discharge, mild discomfort in the intimate area, which is aggravated by vaginal intercourse. If this form could not be cured in a timely manner, the consequences will be extremely severe. The most common complication is infertility caused by a chronic inflammatory process in the ovaries, obstruction of the fallopian tubes.
Sexual dysfunction is also possible: loss of attraction to the opposite sex, the ability to get an orgasm. It causes trichomoniasis and complications during pregnancy, since microorganisms can provoke self- abortion in the early stages or premature birth, amniotic oligohydramnios and their premature outflow, which leads to the death of a child in the womb or on the first day of his life.
One of the most serious consequences is cervical cancer. Recent clinical studies have found that these bacteria contribute to the development of diabetes, allergies, mastopathy and malignant tumors of the female reproductive system.
Infection control methods
Although the disease has “talking” signs, laboratory tests should be performed before treating trichomoniasis in women. Diagnostics is carried out simultaneously in several ways, which increases the chances of detecting all types of pathogenic microflora. Mandatory studies include a smear on the flora from the vagina, bacterial culture of urine, analysis of venous blood by PCR or ELISA. If the examination reveals several pathogens, an integrated approach to treatment will be required, that is, medications will have to be taken according to a certain scheme.
IMPORTANT The patient’s sexual partner should also be treated, regardless of whether he has symptoms of trichomoniasis or not.
Another important task of laboratory diagnostics is to determine the sensitivity of microorganisms to certain groups of drugs, which will make it possible to select the optimal drug products for their destruction. A prerequisite for treatment is the rejection of the use of alcoholic beverages, spices and spices, as well as abstinence from sex until the test results are clear.
Treatment of trichomoniasis in women involves the use of several drugs according to a specific scheme. So, if two antibiotics are prescribed, then the reception is carried out on different days or different times of the day; still alternate vaginal and anal suppositories, medicines are necessarily prescribed to strengthen the immune system, protect the liver. Only a doctor should prescribe medications: an independent selection of pharmaceuticals according to the recommendations of strangers can lead to complications and the development of serious consequences. An approximate treatment regimen for trichomoniasis, not complicated by other infections, looks like this.
- Group 5 nitroimidazoles . The most effective synthetic substances against this group of pathogenic cells are ” Metronidazole ” and its derivatives (” Tinidazole “, ” Ternidazole “, ” Ordinazol “, “Trichopol”, etc.), usually produced in the form of tablets or injections.
- Topical means: vaginal gels or ointments, suppositories, which should be administered for at least a week.
- Immunomodulators – means to strengthen the immune system.
- Heptoprotectors – restorers of liver cells.
A specific scheme is prescribed by the doctor individually for each patient, since some girls have contraindications to certain drugs, which is also taken into account by the doctor when drawing up a plan to combat bacteria. Therapy of pregnant women is of particular difficulty: antibiotics are contraindicated during gestation, therefore anti-inflammatory drugs are usually prescribed to reduce the main symptoms of the disease, and the main treatment is prescribed after delivery.
Immunomodulatory pharmaceutical products are also prescribed individually. These can be vitamin-mineral complexes or ordinary herbal tinctures, traditional medicine recipes: decoctions of chamomile, calendula, oak bark , used orally or in the form of sitz baths.