The secret of the prostate is a fluid produced by the prostate gland and is a component of semen. The vital activity and ability of spermatozoa to fertilize depends on its quality, therefore it is extremely difficult to overestimate its importance for the male body. Prostate secretion analysis is a mandatory study for guys who have complaints about the functioning of the genitourinary system.
What it is
The third part of the secreted ejaculate is the secret of the prostate gland. If a man is healthy and his genitourinary system is working smoothly, this fluid has the correct composition. In cases where infectious or inflammatory processes affect the prostate, its juice changes its chemical balance, and this directly affects the ability of a man to become a father.
So, the basis of sperm is water (95%), as well as the following elements:
- metal salts: potassium, calcium, sodium, zinc;
- protein enzymes;
- cellular components (leukocytes, with bleeding – erythrocytes);
- non-cellular elements (lipoid particles, lecithin grains, amyloid bodies);
- acids: citric.
The functionality of prostate juice is more dependent on the content of cholesterol and lecithin grains, therefore, if infertility is suspected, more attention is paid to these parameters.
To get a general picture of the health of the glandular organ, an adult patient needs to donate 1.5-2 ml of sperm, i.e. exactly the amount that is usually released during sexual intercourse.
Indications and contraindications
The analysis should be taken annually by men over 40 years of age as part of a preventive examination. There are also a number of indications when a diagnosis should be made outside of screening. This is:
- no pregnancy during the year if the couple does not use contraceptive methods;
- discomfort and pain in the pelvic area, lower abdomen;
- painful bowel and bladder emptying;
- decrease in erectile function;
- the presence of pathogenic microflora in the semen;
- general deterioration of well-being.
In all these cases, it is recommended to culture the prostate juice and study it for the presence of flora, its sensitivity to antibiotic drugs. If the results show the growth of bacteria, the man will need to undergo a complete diagnostic examination and drug therapy prescribed by a specialist.
Any procedure has its contraindications and prostate juice analysis is no exception. It is forbidden to carry it out in the following cases:
- exacerbation of hemorrhoids of any form;
- anal fissures;
- acute inflammatory processes;
- SARS, accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
In the presence of such pathologies, the patient is recommended to undergo seeding of seminal fluid, because. it does not require stimulation through the anus to obtain it.
How and why is it done
The logical question that arises after the appointment for the delivery of prostate juice is how this analysis is taken?
There is nothing complicated in the delivery procedure itself. The patient lies on his left side, pulls his knees to his chest, relaxes as much as possible or kneels. Next, the specialist inserts a finger into the anus and gently massages the prostate gland to ensure the outflow of its secret. If the massage is carried out correctly, a liquid will begin to be released, which is called the prostatic secret, it is collected in a sterile container.
Why is an analysis of the secret (juice) of the prostate prescribed and what will its decoding tell about?
According to the results of bacterial culture , it is possible to obtain data on the health of not only the prostate gland, but also all components of the genitourinary system.
So, when sowing, determine:
- oncological processes;
- chronic inflammatory process, practically without external signs;
- seminal fluid quality;
- pathogens of infectious processes and their sensitivity to antibiotics.
During the procedure, preparation for the analysis is important. Three days before they take the liquid, physical activity, intimate relationships, and alcoholic beverages should be abandoned. Fluid intake is recommended to be done after a cleansing enema performed the night before. General clinical study is carried out in vitro ( invitro ), i.e. in test tubes, in laboratory conditions using biochemical reagents and visual assessment. The latter determines the color, density, volume of juice, alkaline reactions.
The cytological examination itself is carried out by two methods:
- Microscopic. The cellular structure of the native liquid is studied under a microscope.
- Bacteriological or seeding of the secretion of the prostate gland (prostate). Helps to determine the presence of the pathogen and its sensitivity to antibiotics.
All results are entered in a special table, which indicates healthy norms. According to the presence of deviations from them, conclusions are made, after deciphering which the doctor establishes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment.
Deciphering the result: norms and deviations
Focusing on generally accepted norms for analysis.
- volume of liquid (from 0.5 to 2 ml): an increase indicates a stagnant process, a decrease indicates prostatitis;
- color (white): during the inflammatory process it becomes bright white or yellow, during bleeding – pink, red;
- smell: in the absence of a characteristic aroma of sperm, we can talk about an infectious disease;
- mucus (absent): presence – a manifestation of inflammation;
- density (1.022 g per cm cube) – any deviation should be interpreted as a pathology;
- acid-base balance (7.0 +/- per 0.3 pH): increased alkaline reaction is a sign of inflammation, an increase in acidity is a sign of prostatitis;
- erythrocytes (absent or single): present in large volumes in malignant tumors, prostatitis;
- epithelial cells (no more than 2-x): the epithelium lines all the ducts, it can deviate from the norm during an inflammatory process in the organ, while an increase in the number of leukocytes is considered a marker of the oncological process;
- leukocytes (5-10 in the field of view, depending on the power of the microscope): a clear sign of an inflammatory process;
- macrophages (0-3) may appear in the presence of infection;
- giant cells (no): stagnation in the glandular organ or a chronic form of its pathologies;
- amyloid bodies (none): in secret, their presence indicates stagnation of blood in the pelvis, sperm, hyperplasia or hypertrophy;
- lecithin grains (10 million in 1 ml): a decrease is a sign of inflammation;
- crystallization pattern (presence): in pathologies, the “fern symptom” is impaired or not preserved;
- fungi (none): with prostatitis, they may be present in small quantities, however, their absence is not an indicator to exclude the diagnosis;
- bacteria (none): detection of staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella and other pathogens – confirmation of the infectious process caused by bacterial microflora.
All obtained data of the analysis are recorded in the form, where the norm and possible deviations from it are indicated. The attending physician should decipher the results, and this should be done by evaluating all the data as a whole.
So, one parameter, whose level does not meet healthy criteria, cannot indicate the presence of pathology, but several of them are already a reason for establishing a preliminary diagnosis. After receiving the transcript, the specialist often issues a recommendation for additional studies in order to have a more complete picture of the patient’s health status.
Additional diagnostic methods
Establishing only the presence of an inflammatory process for making an accurate diagnosis is not enough, it is necessary to determine its cause, the degree of damage to the prostate and nearby tissues, and the general health of the patient. Therefore, a man is recommended to undergo a full course of examination. It usually includes:
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs: allows you to assess the size of the organ, the presence of tumors, calcifications , cysts, stones, etc. , as well as lesions in nearby organs;
- PSA (prostate specific antigen): is prescribed for suspected malignant neoplasm, is a tumor marker of the male reproductive system;
- blood tests by PCR or ELISA: assigned to the bacterial form of the disease to determine sexually transmitted pathogens (chlamydia, ureplasma , trichomonas, mycoplasma, etc.);
- biopsy: necessary to confirm the oncological process and determine its stage.
Further treatment of the patient will depend on the results of all diagnostics. After recovery, the patient will be shown an annual preventive control in order to determine the recurrence of the pathology at an early stage.
When receiving an appointment for the study of the secret of the prostate, you should check with the attending specialist where, how and how much it is done. Usually laboratories are present in every city clinic, all research there is free, but it takes a long time to wait for the results.